These days, the minute you indulge in any technology oriented discussion, interview questions on cloud computing comes up on some form or the other. This brings us to the question: what is cloud computing?
In the older days, people would merely speculate that the world population is separated from each other through a six degree of separation. With the advent of information technology and advanced communications, that has become a lived reality. Today you can jump into a video conference with anyone from any nook and corner of the world. Compare this to the days of those cumbersome telegrams and trunk calls.
Remember eagerly waiting for MTV or Channel V to play your favourite music and then waiting again for hours to hear it one more time? Cut to 2020, every other house has this otherwise unimpressive gadget on their tabletops. Looks are deceptive because any nondescript or tiny these gadgets may be, they have single-handedly transformed the lives of their owners.
Yes, you guessed it right. These are the contemporary virtual assistants which will play your favourite song at any point of time without requiring you to even press a button. All you need to do is simply voice out your instructions and let the likes of Siri, Alexa or Google Home do the needful. The wonders don’t simply stop there.
From dimming the lights to turning on your TV, these virtual assistants will follow your command instantly as soon as you spell your commands aloud. What would seem like a distant dream a few years back is indeed an everyday phenomenon now. And, we have cloud computing to thank for transforming our lives for the better.
Cloud computing is having various application which has enabled regular devices to expand their functionality and bandwidth and perform intuitive tasks without any human intervention. At the crux of this cloud computing lies the IoT software. IoT stands for the Internet of Things which is essentially an advanced form of technology that extends connectivity from devices like computers and mobile phones to other appliances like television, air conditions and even a toaster.
With the help of IoT, internet bandwidth can be extended to a wide array of gadgets and facilitate interaction between these devices. The end result is usually a time, energy and performance efficient technology which runs with minimal human intervention. The predominance of the IoT technology in every aspect of our lives has brewed an intense demand for professionals who are adept at devising and handling IoT devices.
So if you’re preparing for a software development role, it will help to familiarise yourself with some of the key IoT concepts and get on the top of the commonly asked interview questions on IoT.
Top IoT Interview Questions and Answers
1. How does the Internet of Things (IoT) affect our everyday lives?
What we know as “smart devices” in our everyday lives, are actually devices embedded in IoT technology which are able to manifest greater quantum of automation than those available before. IoT creates a greater network that enables different devices to interact freely with each other.
Consequently, their bandwidth to perform tasks are expanded and are able to create a collaborative environment to automate different aspects of human lives. From sensor driven home appliances like refrigerators that automatically turn off when not in use to virtual assistants which can regulate most of your devices from your lights to your television, from your air condition to playing your favourite music, IoT’s utility in our everyday lives are all pervasive.
IoT is simply not limited to our gadgets. Even our wearables have evolved to keep pace with IoT. Be it smartwatches or sunglasses which double up as earphones, you name it and you’ll have the mark of IoT. Even on a large scale application, the transportation industry, the government infrastructure or educational initiatives are other domains where there is a huge scope of involving IoT technology. According to a report by Garter, by 2020, approximately 20.6 billion devices will have IoT elements that connect them to each other.
2. How does IOT work?
IoT devices are built on the concept of artificial intelligence. Since the mainstay of the IoT technology is enhanced communication, paired with intuitive performance, it incorporates sensor devices and unique data processing mechanisms. In many ways, IoT devices are an amalgamation of several advanced technologies. IoT benefits of artificial intelligence
When it comes to classifying different components of IoT, we can divide into the sensors, cloud component, data processing software and finally cutting edge user interface.
So as the sensors collect data, the cloud facilitates the network connection between the devices, the software processes and stores the data collected and finally the user interface programs the device to respond to its environmental stimuli. The end result is a highly reactive and intuitive device which greatly increments the existing levels of automation.
3. Describe the different components of IOT
An IoT device typically comprises four major components.
- Sensors – Much of IoT involves environment adaptability and the major factor contributing to it are the sensors in the IoT devices. Sensors are devices which enable the IoT devices to gather data from its surroundings. Effectively, they may be perceived as instruments which sense the environment and perform multiple tasks. Senors make the IoT devices capable of real world integration. It can be of varied types. From a simple GPS in your phones to the live video feature on a social media platform.
- Connectivity- With the advent of cloud computing, devices can be launched on a cloud platform and in the due course, devices can interact freely with each other at a cheaper and more transparent scale. For IoT devices, cloud computing facilitates freedom from exclusive network providers. Instead, small network connection mediums like mobile satellite networks, WAN, Bluetooth etc. are used.
- Data Processing – As as soon as the environmental stimuli are gathered by the sensors and transmuted to the cloud, it is the job of the data processors to process the information collected and perform the required tasks. From adjusting the temperatures of the AC to facial recognition on mobile phones or biometric devices, data processing software are largely responsible for enhancing the automation in IoT devices.
- User Interface – The IoT introduced a new paradigm among the available devices for active interaction and engagement. This has transformed the user interface widely. Instead of one-way communication mechanisms of traditional devices, IoT enables cascading effects on end-user commands. This is precisely why IoT devices are all the more communicative and active.
4. What is the scale of use of IoT devices in contemporary times?
Going by the figures deduced by a Cisco report, IoT devices are not only omnipresent but also are major contributors to the global capital. The report predicts that in the next decade, IoTs are likely to create value to the tune of 14.4 trillion USD across different industries.
If we look at IOT’s influence in our everyday lives, it doesn’t seem surprising at all. You name an aspect of life, you’ll find IOT’s footprints, carbon footprints, albeit there. From watches that supplement time telling features with body parameters count and monitor your fitness routines to refrigerators which automatically switch off when not in use, IoTs have permeated every aspect of our everyday lives.
Compare today’s trends of Alexa and Siri steered music listening patterns to the era of walkmans and CDROMs. You’d know what a boon IOTs really have been. Even at the macrocosmic level, governments, transportation and education sectors are implementing IOT technology to revolutionise their services. This has set the stage for the birth of smart cities.
5. How does IoT influence the development of smart cities?
The intuitive facets of IoT devices paired with enhanced network engagement enable IoT to promote versatility, transparency and efficiency in infrastructure planning. IOT also embeds energy-efficient projects to take off. Overall, with the whole array of advantages that IoT brings in, it is possible for the government to work towards building smart cities all across the globe.
With the help of IoT, clever energy grids, automated waste management systems, smart homes, better security systems, improved traffic management mechanisms, advanced security features, water conservation mechanisms and so much more is possible. The two pronged blessings of artificial intelligence and innovation, IoT has allowed public utilities and urban planning to be highly intuitive. These have triggered the birth of smart homes and smart cities.
6. How does the community assist in the development of IoT?
Internet of Things relies greatly on the network engagement for the appropriate functioning of the end-user goals. The cloud platforms enable active network interactions between several “smart devices” which in turn scale up the functionalities of numerous active gadgets with IoT properties.
Net of entirety is often the term used to refer to the electromagnetic spectrum that cloud platforms provide for IoT to be deployed. IoTs require both certified and unlicensed platforms to operate. To know more about IoT one must be aware of the IoT Real world application in 2020.
7. What is the difference between business IOT and IIOT?
While the Internet of Things (IoT) refer to the consumer oriented gadgets which perform tasks that provide consumer utilities like smartphones, thermostats etc., business IoT or IIOT are large scale structures or systems that are usually used at the industrial levels. For instance, fire alarms etc. Since the major difference lies in the scale of impact, a failure in IIOT is likely to affect a wider range of population.
8. In what ways is IoT energy efficient?
One of the major advantages of IoT is that it makes gadgets environment friendly and substantially reduces carbon emission. By engaging in context conscious automation, the IoT gadgets are able to save energy. For instance, refrigerators which switch off when not in use or road light fixtures are able to save almost 40% of electricity.
9. What are the economic impacts of the increased application of IoT?
IoT is known to positively impact the economic standards of different industries. From facilitating better resource management to reducing response time and human interventions, IoTs can vastly reduce labour costs and energy costs. This in turn can boost supply chains of major industries, thus enabling product distribution at cheaper costs. This not only helps industries to earn greater profits but also is a great way to improve the available production infrastructure. Overall, scalability is great in IoT and hence, in the long run IoT applications prove to be cost saving as well.
10. What are the major impacts of IoT in the Healthcare Industry?
IoT has transformed healthcare services and diagnostic practises to a large extent. From attaining more precision in testing to making surgeries and implants prompt and efficient, IoT devices in the healthcare industries have largely contributed towards making medical practices more efficient, transparent and affordable. Besides, fitness parameters can be easily tracked these days with fitness bands and smartwatches. This has enhanced the scope of fitness monitoring and we have IoT to thank for it.
Learn more about machine learning applications in healthcare industry.
11. What are the types of data that can be communicated between IoT devices?
At present, it would not be far-fetched to state that when it comes to IoT, the sky’s the limit for the type of data, the IoT objects can process and store. Since the crux of IOT’s functionality is intercommunication between network devices, pretty much any data that can be launched on the cloud can be communicated from one IoT device to the other.
The type of information that an IoT object can gather and respond to depends on its environment and its sensor settings. For example, a thermometer can communicate the weather statistics intuitively but it will take a clinical sensor to be able to provide information about health parameters like body temperature, pulse, pressure etc.
12. What are the challenges to the widespread use of IoT?
While the boons of IoT are manifold and the economy seems to be rapidly moving towards an IoT oriented environment, there are a few disadvantages to the use of IoT.
Firstly, security remains a predominant threat of the use of IoT. This is because by forging connection between multiple devices within a cloud network, control over system authentication gets diluted. Anyone can access any information from a wide network of connected devices now.
Secondly, related to security, the privacy of data is another major challenge. Within the network, a substantial amount of user data gets released and the users often lose control over their own data.
Moreover, while the overall usage of IoT is resource efficient, the deployment process entails layers of complexities and can be potentially expensive.
Finally, due to the complex connectivity features, compliance to regulations are often offset. IoT can go against the norm of usage on several occasions.
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